Glass is a type of solid “liquid”, ie a set of molecules that do not hold each other as tightly as, for example, metal or wood. It has a so-called amorphous shape and is similar to wax. The main raw materials for the production of glass are quartz sand-silicon oxide of high purity, soda, calcium oxide and some other oxides. The raw material is crushed, homogenized and placed in a melting furnace. This is the first phase in the production of glass and takes place at a temperature of 1400 to 1600 ° C. The molten mass is first cooled to a viscosity of optimal workability and then shaped into the desired shapes. Glass shaping is done by drawing, pressing, rolling and casting. In hand-made glass, such a melted mass is formed by blowing through a particularly long narrow tube. Further cooling hardens the molded products.
- Glass Specifications
- Ecological Advantages
- History of Glass
- Glass as a modern building material
- Typology and types of glass
- Leading trends in the Glass industry
- It is not flammable
- Has homogeneous and smooth surfaces, easy to clean
- Very resistant to chemical influences
- Persistent in most acids and alkalis, does not dissolve in water and does not corrode at the same time
- The glass does not absorb or release moisture nor does it bend or dry out
- When it gets a certain shape it does not change
- As said Glass is a modern building material
- 1m² of Glass thickness of 1mm weights 2.5kg
Glass is a completely transparent material. Glass is a highly valuable and noble packaging material that simultaneously preserves and protects the packaged contents. It is impermeable, so the aroma and taste of the substance cannot enter or leave the glass. Foods packed in glass remain absolutely unchanged, natural and fresh.
Glass is a precious raw material that can be 100% recycled. Under the term recycling we mean organized collection of items from the same material that no longer have use value, their reprocessing into new products and reuse. Old glass can be remelted countless times without losing quality. It is used as a valuable raw material for the production of new glass packaging. From one ton of waste glass, with the addition of energy, one ton of new jars will be obtained. This saves 700kg of sand, 200kg of CaCO3 and 200kg of soda. Recycling glass reduces air pollution by 20% and water pollution by 50%.
Natural glass has been known since ancient times. It is formed in volcanic activities, and another form of natural glass is formed by lightning strikes in silicon sand. The arrowheads and knives of prehistoric people were made of volcanic glass and found in various places around the globe. The homeland of artificial glass is considered to be Egypt, where archeological excavations have found glass objects, the remains of workshops with molds and parts of a furnace for melting glass. Glass was used to make jewelry (necklaces), which were used for trade. Phoenicians, Assyrians and Palestinians had developed glass production. Later, Rome became the center of glass production (until the 5th century), from where this skill spread throughout the Roman provinces. Decorative items and jewelry, dishes for cosmetics are made of glass, and in the household, glass has replaced dishes made of ceramics and metal. With the fall of the Roman Empire (476), Byzantium became the center of glass production, and Syria in the 12th century. With the fall of Syria under Turkish rule in the 14th century, Europe, especially France and England, took over the leading role in glass production, and from the 15th to the 17th century Venice, which produced glass of high artistic value – decorative glass, stained and painted glass for windows, glass for mirrors and chandeliers, etc. The modern history of glass begins in 1851 when the English architect Joseph Paxton, for the World’s Fair in London, designed a glass pavilion called “Criytal Palace”. This building encouraged architects to start using glass as a building material. The glassmaking revolution was started in 1952 by Sir Alastair Pilkington, who invented the float process for the production of glass. Automated production of floating glass according to the float process began in 1958 and is today the standard method for the production of glass. Liquid glass glides – floats on the surface (float – floats) of molten metal in a chamber with a controlled atmosphere. The mass is gradually cooled and glass is formed with ideally flat and parallel surfaces, of uniform thickness. This procedure enabled the production of glass plates in various colors and in different thicknesses and dimensions. Over 90% of the world’s glass production is float glass. Our everyday life and life without glass today would be unthinkable.
By inevitable development, humanity influences the change of the environment. As in other activities as well as in construction, it is necessary to satisfy human needs without disturbing the environment. By selecting the optimal type of glass used to close the facade openings, the following is achieved:
- Heat loss control
- Control of heat energy passage
- UV passage control
- Light transmission control
- Sound isolation
- Injury protection
Typology of Glass
Typology of glass implies the way in which glass is prepared before installation.
It consists of one glass surface. They differ from each other in thickness, type and processing. Single glass is the cheapest and most widely used glass. By cutting to the desired dimensions and shape with possible additional processing, the glass is ready for installation.
Today, it is unfairly used for ordinary glass, which is of lower quality because it was obtained by the extraction method. It was named after the Float procedure and nowadays it is most often used in construction and for obtaining almost all glass products. It is available in thicknesses of 2,3,4,5,6,8,10,12,15,19 and 25 mm (19MM,25MM only by special order)..
Float glass with low amounts of Iron
Parsol (colored) Glass
(Fleet painted in mass, colors: bronze, gray, green, blue) Parsol is a glass to which color is added during production. It is widely used due to its ability to absorb light and heat energy, so it is used in the automotive industry, construction (interior design), furniture industry.
It has metal oxide applied so that it actually combines thermal protection and reflection. Semi-reflective glass reflects the sun’s rays, but significantly less than reflective glass and absorbs some light and energy. The colors of the semi-reflective glass are colorless, green and blue. Used for glazing facades, gardens
Stopsol (reflective) Glass
(Fleet + reflection layer) Stopsol is an energy control glass. All the radiation that we receive from the sun and that pass through the glass and reach the room of our home or work space is called solar energy supplements. In winter, we like these accessories because they compensate for heat losses, but in summer we will have the problem of overheating the rooms if we have large glass surfaces.
It is usually float glass with an almost invisible metal coating that reduces solar heating of the room. This special metal coating also produces a mirror effect, thus preventing visibility through the glass.
Anti-reflective (matte) Glass
It is a combination of two pyrolytically treated glass surfaces and reduces visible light reflection to less than 2%. (for example, it prevents when you look through the shop window at products to see yourself and the background in the glass as a reflection), and at the same time allows greater visibility through the glass, even than colorless float glass. , protects the interior of the room and the contents. It is made in serial production. It is mainly used for framing images in a thickness of 2mm.
Is a type of glass on the surface of which a silver coating is applied. With the help of light, it provides very clear reflections of the environment. In addition to glass, it has four layers: silver nitrate, protective metal coating and two layers of dedicated protective paint. Except in the classic variant it can have a bronze or gray tone.
Is a float glass whose one side is treated with high-quality acid etching. It is more transparent than sandblasted glass. Fingerprints do not remain on such treated surfaces and are very easy to maintain. This glass can be laminated, joined into double glazing, hardened.
Is a decorative glass obtained by imprinting a pattern or pattern on one or both sides during the production of float glass during the passage of float glass through rollers, and the colors can be colorless, bronze or yellow. There are many types of ornaments in plain or wire glass. Thicknesses are from 3 to 19mm, usually 4mm. Transparency depends on the density and structure of the ornament.
Armed (wired) Glass
contains a wire mesh (usually about 10mm grid) in the middle of the glass. In case of breaking the glass, the wire keeps the glass from breaking. It is ideal for garages, roofs, balcony railings and areas where the “industrial” look is not unattractive. In principle, it is not safety glass because parts of cracked glass have sharp edges. The standard thickness is 6mm, and it is most often produced in a transparent, matte or brown variant.
Sandblasting is the treatment of glass by applying an abrasive to glass under high pressure. Sandblasting can be used to treat the entire glass surface or part. With this method of processing, various geometric shapes, figures, different patterns and glass designs can be achieved and created. Thus glass can become a work of art.
Is tinted glass that is painted with special colors that transmit light but not the image. The paint is applied under high pressure on the float glass, which absorbs part of the light and, as a rule, brightens the color tone.
The glass is heated to the plastic limit of 600 ° C after which it is abruptly cooled by cold air. The result is higher impact resistance (five times or more), higher bending strength and resistance to heat loads. Before heat treatment, it must be at least roughly ground. In case of fracture, a network of small grains with rounded edges is created. After this heat treatment, the glass can no longer be processed, so all cutting, grinding and drilling operations must be performed before tempering. After tempering, the glass can only be sandblasted and satin-coated. In the process of tempering, the paint first melts, and then permanently binds to the glass surface. Such paint application is very resistant to mechanical damage and aging. It is possible to enamel ornamental glass, satin or metallized. It is used for glass panels on facades, for glass fillings, kitchen cladding above the worktop.
(Planibel top N+)is a glass intended for the production of insulated glass, which is very effective in preserving heat in the building, maximally transmits light and solar energy into the interior, which means that this glass helps to be comfortable with the glass surface in winter and contributes to a significant reduction in heating costs , has a very neutral appearance, like standard glass is intended for all types of use: house windows, furnishing facades and windows of office buildings and the like. Planibel top N + is a transparent float glass, coated with metal oxides by cathodic evaporation under vacuum conditions. This layer is extremely resistant and is known as the low emission layer. [/ Vc_column_text] [/ vc_accordion_tab]
Lamistal glass or laminated glass (PAMPLEX) is a sandwich of two or more glass plates that are interconnected by thin PVB (polyvinylbutyral) foils or a special liquid under conditions of increased temperature in an autoclave where complete adhesion occurs between the binder and the glass. Foils and glasses can be of different colors and thicknesses. For example, two tempered glasses 6 mm thick can be joined into the lamistal so that we get glass 6-2-6, ie. One complete plate 14 mm thick. This glass provides better sound insulation than traditional glass with the same thickness. Lamistal glass is safety glass because in case of breaking, it does not break but remains homogeneous, glued to the binder.
is the most common form of glass application. It is a combination of two or more glasses that are joined at the edges by a metal hollow profile (spacer usually made of aluminum 6-12mm thick) filled with a molecular bead (grains that prevent the accumulation of moisture between the glasses). Glass and metal are joined by butyl applied on the profile in the hot state and has the function of glue and insulation. Quality insulated glass must then pass through the press to obtain a more compact and durable product. The final part is puttying with a thick mixture which makes an extremely high-quality gluing on the edge and thus protects the interspace of the insulating glass from water penetration in order to prevent condensation and fogging of the inner part of the insulating glass.
Most often, iso-glass is made of two float (transparent) glasses with a thickness of at least 4 mm. Increasingly, one or both panes are being replaced with different panes with better characteristics: low-em (thermal insulating glass – reduces heat loss by as much as 60% compared to classic insulated glass. On the surface of the glass there is a soft coating of a thin layer of metal oxides.It acts as a reflector and maintains the temperature in the room.The layer is turned towards the inside of the insulating glass so that it is impossible to damage it).
No insulating glass should have one of the glasses thinner than 4 mm. There is air in the interspace, but it is increasingly filled with inert gas (argon, krypton…), which improves its insulation properties, ie. prevents the flow of energy.
The aesthetic part has developed a lot in the last ten years, so very often decorative profiles of various shapes are placed between the glasses. The most commonly used are gold (brass) 10 mm wide and white moldings of the usual 10, 18 and 26 mm width. There are also profiles in other colors (silver, brown, black…), but they are rarely used in practice.
Venetian blinds can also be placed between the two panes, which can be turned, raised or lowered in a mechanical way, automatically or with the help of a remote control. So we have protection that does not need to be maintained because it is insulated even from dust. With this product, the spacer is 18-27 mm thick.
The advantages for which insulating glass is sought are:
- Easy Maintenance
- Thermal energy savings
- Prevents moisture condensation
- Improves sound and heat insulation
- Shelf life of Iso Glass is up to 30 Years
- Interspace (air or gas)
- Molecular – moisture absorber
- Tiocol, hot-melt, silicon
Reasons to install insulating glass with LOW-E:
- Saving on heating, reduces the cost of living
- Reduction of pollution emissions, nature disturbances and climate balance
- Increase the comfort of the space
- We are left with financial resources for other needs and an increase in living standards
Note: How do you know if low-e glass is installed and how it is installed?
With ordinary insulated glass, if you light a lighter, the flame in the reflection on the glass will be yellow or yellowish, and with low-e glass, the flame will be purple-blue ! It is important to note that when assembling the glass, the glass usually comes from the outside, and LOW-E glass comes from the inside !